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Almost immediately after the discovery of cAMP by Sutherland and colleagues, cyclic nucleotide PDE activity was described (Butcher and Sutherland, 1962). With the subsequent discovery of cGMP, it was found that both cAMP and cGMP could be hydrolyzed by the same type of activity, i.e., hydrolysis of the 3? cyclic phosphate bond. On the basis of substrate competition studies, it was clear that at least some of these activities must have the same catalytic site. In fact, many of the early studies on cyclic nucleotides were directed toward understanding PDE activity since at that time it was much easier to measure PDE activity than either cAMP or cGMP themselves or the enzymes that catalyzed their synthesis. With the advent of assays using radioactive substrate, it became clear that there were likely to be multiple forms of PDEs with different kinetic and regulatory properties (Thompson et al., 1979; Beavo et al., 1982). However, it was not until higher resolution fractionation techniques, monoclonal antibodies, and molecular cloning and sequencing procedures were applied to the PDEs that the truly large number of different gene products was fully appreciated. When did you first notice symptoms of ED? here you can buy generic cialis and get bonuses cialis for sale ?4 The ? subunit is found in a number of cell types and tissues in addition to the photoreceptors and probably should not be called a photoreceptor PDE subunit because it can also bind to other proteins. Other Impotence Drugs